The hottest green design and manufacturing III

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Green design and manufacturing (III)

III. structural system of green design and manufacturing

(I) green design of products

in the process of implementing green manufacturing, green design is the key, which determines the consumption of 80% - 90% of the product life cycle. Green design refers to fully considering the impact on resources and environment in the design of products and the whole process of their life cycle, optimizing relevant design factors while considering the function, quality, development cycle and cost of products, (3) turning off the switch after the experiment to minimize the overall impact of products and their manufacturing process on the environment. Green design is also called design for environment (DFE). Green product design includes the following main contents:

1, green materials and their selection

green materials refer to materials with good environmental compatibility on the premise of meeting general functional requirements. Green materials have the largest resource utilization and the smallest environmental impact in the preparation, use, post-use disposal and other stages of the life cycle. Three principles for the selection of green materials:

① give priority to renewable materials and try to use recycled materials. Improve resource utilization and realize sustainable development; ② Try to choose materials with low energy consumption and less pollution; ③ Try to choose materials and parts with good environmental compatibility, and avoid using toxic, harmful and radioactive materials. The materials used shall be easy to reuse, recycle, remanufacture or degrade

2. Design for recycling (DFR)

it is required that the possibility of part recycling and regeneration should be considered in the initial design of the product, that is, in other new products, the parts and materials in used or discarded products can be used. Several design strategies are proposed for the reuse of parts and materials:

① recyclable materials and their marks; ② Recyclable processes and methods; ③ Recyclable economic evaluation; ④ Recyclable structure design

3. Design for disassembly (DFD)

Design for disassembly is a design methodology that makes products easy to disassemble and can obtain the highest profit from material recycling and parts reuse. Disassembly is one of the main contents of green product design, and it is also an early and systematic method in green product design. It studies how to design products in order to disassemble components and parts and classify materials efficiently and cheaply, so as to reuse and recycle them. It requires that detachability be taken as an evaluation criterion of structural design in the primary stage of product design, so that the designed structure is easy to disassemble, so it is convenient to maintain. And the reusable part can be fully and effectively recycled and reused after the product is scrapped, so as to achieve the purpose of saving resources and energy and protecting the environment. The main strategies of disassembly design are:

① reduce the workload of disassembly; ② Predictable product structure; ③ Easy to disassemble; ④ Easy to separate; ⑤ Reduce the diversity of parts

at present, DFD mainly focuses on the following three phased studies: ① collect, classify and summarize the relevant knowledge of DFD; ② Quantitative evaluation of disassembly possibility; ③ Create new DFD methods and tools, and these tools are generally expert systems integrated with CAD design

4. Green packaging

green packaging technology is to optimize the product packaging scheme from the perspective of environmental protection, so as to minimize resource consumption and waste generation. At present, the research in this field is very extensive, which can be roughly divided into three aspects: packaging materials, packaging structure and packaging waste recycling. Nowadays, major industrial countries in the world require that packaging should comply with the principle of "3r1d" (reduce reduction, reuse, recycle recycling and degradable)

the packaging of products should abandon the consumption concept of novelty and differentiation and simplify the packaging, which can not only reduce the waste of resources, but also reduce environmental pollution and waste disposal costs. In addition, the product packaging should try to choose non-toxic, pollution-free, recyclable or easily degradable materials, such as paper, reusable products and recyclable materials (such as EPS, polystyrene products)

5. Cost analysis of green products

the cost analysis of green products is different from the traditional cost analysis. In the early stage of product design, the performance of product recovery and reuse must be considered. Therefore, when analyzing the cost, we must consider the replacement of pollutants, product disassembly, reuse costs, and the corresponding environmental costs of special products. The cost analysis of green products should be carried out at each design selection, so as to make the designed products more "green" and low cost

6. Green product design database

green product design database plays an important role in the design process of green products. The database shall include all data related to the environment and economy in the product life cycle, such as material composition, impact value of various materials on the environment, natural degradation cycle of materials, artificial degradation time, cost, the number of additions and impact value on the environment produced in the process of manufacturing, assembly, sales and use, various judgment standards required by environmental assessment criteria, etc

(II) green manufacturing of products

the impact of products on the environment should be considered not only in the design process, but also in the process of product manufacturing. The adoption of green technology to track the popular concerns of society and the public is an important part of realizing green manufacturing. Green technology is inseparable from cleaner production, which is officially recognized as a prerequisite for sustainable development. Green technology refers to clean technology, which can not only improve economic benefits, but also reduce environmental impact. It requires that the consumption of hazardous wastes and other toxic chemicals must be reduced or eliminated while improving production efficiency, improve working conditions, reduce health threats to operators, and produce safe and environmentally compatible products. The green process of parts in the processing process mainly includes the process optimization of processing sequence, processing parameters, the use of cutting tools, cutting fluids, lubricants, processing quality, heat treatment, cleaning process in metal forming (casting, smelting) and environmental assessment. Green process should start with technology, and try to study and adopt the process scheme and process route with less material and energy consumption, less waste and less environmental pollution

IV. development trend of green manufacturing

the future green design and manufacturing will tend to be globalized, beautiful and generous in appearance, socialized, integrated, parallel, intelligent and industrialized. Possible research methods in the future include: ① modular design; ② Neural network and application of fuzzy mathematics; ③ Axiomatic design; ④ Virtual disassembly, etc

people have put forward a green design development system, the key of which is the improvement of the green product design evaluation system, which evaluates the environmental impact of products from each link in the whole life cycle of design, manufacturing, packaging, transportation and scrapping, and establishes an evaluation system of green products in the whole life cycle and in the integrated environment [4]. At the same time, we should study and develop advanced manufacturing technology and the corresponding advanced manufacturing mode, and vigorously develop low pollution, low energy consumption, pollution-free production processes and final products

research and develop databases and information systems suitable for green design and manufacturing, such as material databases, manufacturing databases, LCA databases and various knowledge bases, and develop supporting software for green product design and implementation of green manufacturing

although the "green barrier" in the WTO rules has some factors that big countries use as excuses to restrict the trade of developing countries, its positive significance is self-evident. The dynamic load impact and impact pressure experiment are self-evident. If our manufacturing industry wants to stand on the ground in world trade, the level of "green" is of great importance. Therefore, whether we can make a difference in green design and manufacturing is no longer an indirect or long-term benefit problem, but a direct benefit problem. In the process of export-oriented manufacturing, we must resist the attempt of developed countries to transfer high polluting industries to us (when the market needs them) and use the weapon of "green barriers" to crowd us out in the international market (when there is competition)

in the process of guiding the construction of modern manufacturing base, the government must have a modern vision, strengthen the "green" education of enterprises, improve the supervision mechanism of government departments on green manufacturing of enterprises, and strengthen legislation, administrative regulations and relevant economic policies. At the same time, a more systematic green manufacturing theory and method system should be established to promote and guide the in-depth research and discipline development of green design and manufacturing technology. Promote the construction of green design and manufacturing system through laws, policies, academia, public opinion and technology, and build Changzhou into a modern manufacturing base with modern taste, sustainable development and good economic, social and ecological benefits

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